Jeffrey Linder DC
358 5th Ave, #1203, New York, NY, 11030
Phone: 212-768-4078
Fax: 206-338-2552
drjlinder@optonline.net
http://www.nycprimaryspine.com
SELECTED OCCUPATIONAL HISTORY
Founder and President, Bryant Park Wellness, New York, New York, 1997 - Present
Chief Chiropractor, New York Eye and Ear Infirmary, New York, New York, 1999 - 2001
Chiropractor, Rowe Chiropractic Offices, New York, New York, 1996 - 1997
EDUCATION AND LICENSURE
Doctor of Chiropractic, Licensed in the State of New York, License # X008341-1, 1996-Present
Doctorate of Chiropractic, Life College of Chiropractic, Marietta, Georgia, 1996
National Board of Chiropractic Examiners, Part I, 1996
National Board of Chiropractic Examiners, Part II, 1996
National Board of Chiropractic Examiners, Part III, 1996
National Board of Chiropractic Examiners, Part IV, 1996
National Board of Chiropractic Examiners, Physiotherapy, 1996
Bachelor of Computer Science in Computer Science, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York, 1985

SELECTED POST-GRADUATE EDUCATION

Diagnosis and Management of Post-Surgical Cervical Facet Syndrome , A case of persistent and worsening neck and left shoulder pain post-surgical fusion was presented. Pre and post plain film and advanced imaging slides were reviewed and correlated clinically to left sided mid-scapular pain. Physical examination including orthopedic and neurological testing was discussed in correlation to presenting symptoms. Differential diagnosis of radiculopathy, radiculitis, discogenic pain, scapular myofascial syndrome and thoracic intersegmental dysfunction was presented. Cervical facet joint referral patterns were reviewed and outline of referral for diagnostic facet joint block was discussed. National Spine Management Group, LLC, Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards - PACE. State University of New York at Buffalo Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, New York, New York, 2022
Clinical Grand Rounds – Chiropractic Management and the Carotid Space, outline and discussion of the anatomical boundaries of the carotid space was presented. Review of the aortic arch, brachiocephalic trunk, common carotid, carotid bifurcation, internal carotid, external carotid, Circle of Willis, and vertebral artery pathways was demonstrated. Review of correlation of patient history, physical examination and findings on advanced imaging was presented. Clinical review of dysphagia and odynophagia were presented and discussed clinically in the context of the physical examination and patient pain patterns. Vascular anomalies and their general asymptomatic presentation were emphasized. Etiology of arterial dissections was outlined with emphasis on differentiating spontaneous versus traumatic characterization. Advanced imaging of carotid space pathology was presented with catheter angiography demonstrated as the gold standard. Spine Management Group, LLC, Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards – PACE, State University of New York at Buffalo Jacobs School of Medicine, and Biomedical Sciences , New York, New York, 2022
Clinical Grand Rounds – x-ray dosage, sagittal balance and surgery success rates, – discussion related to millisievert and cumulative effective dose was presented. Outline of the definition and research process of achieving Minimal Clinical Important Difference in spine surgery was discussed. CED levels below 100mSv was reviewed and compared to patients receiving multiple plain film radiographs. Discussion and relation of spinal biomechanics, sagittal balance, utilization of spine radiographs and MRI to working with the neurosurgeon was outlined. National Spine Management Group, LLC, Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards – PACE, State University of New York at Buffalo Jacobs School of Medicine, and Biomedical Sciences, New York, New York, 2022
Clinical Grand Rounds – Nomenclature and Morphology of Intervertebral Disc Pathology – updated review and demonstration of intervertebral disc nomenclature related to intervertebral disc degeneration, trauma and other pathology., Specific attention paid to the agreed upon nomenclature between the Combined Task Forces of the North American Spine Society, American Spine Society, American Society of Spine Radiology and American Society of Neuroradiology. Details were provided in comparison to intervertebral disc herniation and intervertebral disc degeneration. Radial fissures were reviewed and outlined including circumferential, transverse and radial pathology and its anatomical relation to the intervertebral disc. National Spine Management Group, LLC, Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, State University of New York at Buffalo Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, New York, New York, 2021
Clinical Grand Rounds – Mechanical Response of Damaged Human Cervical Spine Ligaments , Ligaments – discussion of the biomechanical properties of cervical spinal ligaments under sub-failure loads. Ligaments discussed were the Anterior Longitudinal Ligament, Posterior Longitudinal ligament, and the Ligamentum Flavum. Deformations exceeding physiological limitations were presented and reviewed. Grade I and Grade II injuries were outlined and discussed. Presentation included observed ligamentous injury significantly compromising ligament ability to give tensile support within physiological spinal motion. Findings were clinically correlated to long term sequalae in Alteration of Motion Segment Integrity and the AMA Guides to the Evaluation of Permanent Impairment 5th and 6th Editions. National Spine Management Group, LLC, Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, State University of New York at Buffalo Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences , New York, NEW YORK, 2021
Clinical Grand Rounds – Prevalence of Spinal Degeneration, Discussion of the clinical occurrence of spinal degenerative conditions such as Diffuse Skeletal Hyperostosis (DISH), central stenosis, foraminal stenosis, degenerative disc disease and osteoporosis was presented. Advanced imaging and plain film radiological utilization in the diagnosis of spinal degermation was outlined and reviewed. Acute versus degenerative conditions in the spine were reviewed and detailed in relation to traumatic and non-traumatic events. Consensus driven parameters in the identification and rating of degenerative change severity was discussed. National Spine Management Group, LLC, Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, State University of New York at Buffalo Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences , New York, NY, 2021
Clinical Grand Rounds – Biomechanical Analysis in Patient Crash Injuries, Detailed review of the difference between biomechanical and biomedical analysis of injuries was presented. Outline of necessity of the use of properly credentialed biomechanical and crash investigation professionals in the diagnosis, management and reporting of crash injuries. Review of specific research related to forces during Activities of Daily Living and those sustained in a crash were presented. Details of a proper biomechanical analysis were discussed and specific review of a biomedical report omitting the mathematical calculations needed to determine force and injury potential was presented. Additional review of methods needed to determine expertise of the biomechanist or accident investigation was discussed. National Spine Management Group, LLC, Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, State University of New York at Buffalo Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences , New Yok, NY, 2021
Clinical Grand Rounds – Cervical Spinal Alignment and Knee Replacement Revision Rates, Review of the most common cervical spinal sagittal alignment parameters and their relationship to interprofessional communication was presented. Discussion of rationale for knee replacement revision surgery including aseptic loosening, fracture and prosthetic joint infection was reviewed. Specific statistical review on revision surgery and effective treatment of end-stage knee osteoarthritis was presented. Details of evidence-based research outlining patients with cervical degenerative disorders having a higher rate of total knee replacement revisions than those without degenerative changes. Analysis of the benefit of radiographic studies looking at the mechanical relationship between the cervical spine and knee composition was outlined and reviewed. National Spine Management Group, LLC, Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, State University of New York at Buffalo Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences , New Yok, NY, 2021
Clinical Grand Rounds – Chiropractic Management of Cervical Myelopathy , review of all relevant spinal anatomy in the cervical and lumbar spine including vertebral bodies, central canal, neuroforamen, ligamentum flavum, anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments, facet capsule, interspinous ligament, supraspinous ligament and spinal cord anatomy. Review of spinal cord anatomy included white and gray matter, ventral and dorsal nerve roots, spinal nerve including the dura mater, arachnoid mater and pia mater. Specific review of patient history, mechanism of injury, physical examination including neurological and orthopedic evaluation as well as criteria for ordering and reading advanced imaging such as MRI and CT were presented in relation to cervical myelopathy, spinal cord compression and myelomalacia. Patient centered; consensus driven clinical diagnosis including interprofessional communication was presented, specific presentation relating to diagnostic outcomes and management. Attention was given to MRI and CT myelogram in both the uncomplicated and complicated patient. National Spine Management Group, LLC, Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, State University of New York at Buffalo Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences , 2021
Chiropractic Diagnosis and Management of Lumbar Ligament Laxity, – detailed outline of injury thresholds of the anterior longitudinal, posterior longitudinal and ligamentum flavum was presented in the lumbar spine. Review of structural and physiological properties relating to stress/strain curve of the above ligaments. Outline of the toe region, linear region and failure region was demonstrated. Transversely isotropic material properties of spinal ligaments was included and correlated to chiropractic care and impairment rating using the AMA Guides to the Evaluation and Management 5th and 6th editions. National Spine Management Group, LLC, Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, State University of New York at Buffalo Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences , 2021
Chiropractic Diagnosis and Management of the Post-Surgical Patient , outline and analysis of spinal biomechanical parameters in a whole spine model of care in the post-surgical analysis of the spine pain patient. Review of the details of measuring Pelvic Incidence and discussion of history of its analysis in relation to sagittal balance and vertebral body rotation was discussed. Outline of movement from a regional model of spine care to a full spine model was presented particularly in the context of pain management strategies post-surgery. Analysis of the components of the post-surgical patient including muscle movement patterns, segmental mobility, spinal curvature and rotation in the coronal, sagittal and axial planes was presented. Interprofessional communication and co-management was emphasized. National Spine Management Group, LLC, Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, State University of New York at Buffalo Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences , 2021
Chiropractic Diagnosis and Management of Whiplash Disorder , outline and discussion of Whiplash as a mechanism of injury with particular focus on damage to underlying tissue structures. Review of anatomy, with specific focus on surrounding muscular, supraspinous ligament, interspinous ligament, spinal nerve, spinal cord, facet capsule and dorsal/ventral nerve roots was presented. Clinical correlation to imaging studies and its influence on management of the Whiplash patient was reviewed. Focused attention was paid to Whiplash as a mechanism of injury and not a complete diagnosis. National Spine Management Group, LLC, Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, State University of New York at Buffalo Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences , 2021
Accident Reconstruction: Terms, Concepts and Definitions, The forces in physics that prevail in accidents to cause bodily injury. Quantifying the force coefficients of vehicle mass and force vectors that can be translated to the occupant and subsequently cause serious injury. Certification in Accident Reconstruction, Cleveland University - Kansas City, Academy of Chiropractic Post Doctoral Division, Long Island, NY, 2020
Accident Reconstruction: Causality, Bodily Injury, Negative Acceleration Forces, Crumple Zones and Critical Documentation, Factors that cause negative acceleration to zero and the subsequent forces created for the vehicle that get translated to the occupant. Understanding critical documentation of hospitals, ambulance reports, doctors and the legal profession in reconstructing an accident. Certification in Accident Reconstruction, Cleveland University, Kansas City, Academy of Chiropractic Post Doctoral Division, Long Island, NY, 2020
Accident Reconstruction: Skid Marks, Time, Disatance, Velocity, Speed Formulas and Road Surfaces, The mathematical calculations necessary utilizing time, distance, speed, coefficients of friction and acceleration in reconstructing an accident. The application of the critical documentation acquired from an accident site. Cleveland University, Kansas City, Academy of Chiropractic Post Doctoral Division, Long Island, NY, 2020
Accident Reconstruction: Research, Causality and Bodily Injury, Delta V issues correlated to injury and mortality, side impact crashes and severity of injuries, event data recorder reports correlated to injury, frontal impact kinematics, crash injury metrics with many variables and inquiries related to head restraints. Certification in Accident Reconstruction, Cleveland University, Kansas City, Academy of Chiropractic Post Doctoral Division, Long Island, NY, 2020
Impairment Rating, The understanding and utilization of the protocols and parameters of the AMA Guide to the Evaluation of Permanent Impairment 6th Edition. Spine, neurological sequelae, migraine, sexual dysfunction, sleep and arousal disorders, station and gait disorders and consciousness are detailed for impairment rating. Herniated discs, radiculopathy, fracture, dislocation and functional loss are also detailed in relation to impairment ratings. Cleveland University - Kansas City, ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Buffalo, New York, 2019
Evaluation and Management, An overview of the evaluation and management process inclusive of utilizing electronic medical records to conclude evidenced-based conclusions with the utilization of macros. The importance of adhering to an academic standard and considering co-morbidities. Cleveland University, Kansas City, PACE Recognized by the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, Academy of Chiropractic, Post-Doctoral Division, New Yok, NY, 2019
Evaluation and Management, Concluding a chief complaint, history and what needs to be considered in a physical examination. This covers in dept the required elements for chief complain, history of present illness, review of systems, and past, family, and/or social history. This module also covers the following components of a physical examination: observation, palpation, percussion, and auscultation. Cleveland University, Kansas City, PACE Recognized by the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, Academy of Chiropractic, Post-Doctoral Division, New York, NY, 2019
Evaluation and Management, Coding and Spinal Examination: Detailing 99202-99205 and 99212-99215 inclusive of required elements for compliant billing. It reviews the elements for an extensive review of systems, cervical and lumbar anatomy and basic testing. The course also covers the basics of vertebra-basilar circulation orthopedic assessment. Cleveland University, Kansas City, PACE Recognized by the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, Academy of Chiropractic, Post-Doctoral Division, New York, NY, 2019
Evaluation and Management, Neurological Evaluation: Reviewing complete motor and sensory evaluation inclusive of reflex arcs with an explanation of Wexler Scales in both the upper and lower extremities. The course breaks down testing for upper and lower motor neuron lesions along with upper and lower extremity motor and sensory testing examinations. Cleveland University, Kansas City, PACE Recognized by the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, Academy of Chiropractic, Post-Doctoral Division, New York, NY, 2019
Evaluation and Management, Documenting Visit Encounters: Forensically detailing the S.O.A.P. note process for visit encounters and discussing the necessity for clinically correlating symptoms, clinical findings and diagnosis with the area(s) treated. It also details how to modify treatment plans, diagnosis, document collaborative care and introduce test findings between evaluations. Cleveland University, Kansas City, PACE Recognized by the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, Academy of Chiropractic, Post-Doctoral Division, New York, NY, 2019
Evaluation and Management, Case Management and Treatment Orders: This module discusses how to document a clinically determined treatment plan inclusive of both manual and adjunctive therapies. It discusses how to document both short-term and long-term goals as well as referring out for collaborative care and/or diagnostic testing. It also includes how to prognose your patient and determine when MMI (Maximum Medical Improvement) has been attained. Cleveland University, Kansas City, PACE Recognized by the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, Academy of Chiropractic, Post-Doctoral Division, New York, NY, 2019
Primary Spine 6, Trends in Spinal Treatment, Migration of spinal care for mechanical spine issues from hospitals and medical specialists to trauma qualified chiropractors based upon published outcomes. Utilizing imaging studies in spinal biomechanics, pain models and clinical outcomes to determine a conclusive diagnosis, prognosis and treatment plan for triaging in a collaborative environment. Cleveland University, Kansas City, PACE Recognized by the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, Academy of Chiropractic, Post-Doctoral Division, Long Island, NY, 2019
Primary Spine 6, Neurology of Spinal Biomechanics, Understanding the normal of spinal biomechanics and the neurotransmitters required for homeostasis. The interconnected role of Pacinian Corpuscles, Ruffini Corpuscles, Golgi Organ Receptors, Nociceptors, Proprioreceptors and Mechancoreceptors in maintaining sagittal and axial alignment in the presence of mechanical pathology. Cleveland University, Kansas City, PACE Recognized by the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, Academy of Chiropractic, Post-Doctoral Division, Long Island, NY, 2019
Primary Spine 6, MRI Age-Dating of Herniated Discs, The literature, academic and clinical standards to age-date herniated discs. The clinical correlation the pain patters with advanced imaging finings of bone edema, spurs based upon the Piezoelectric effect of remodeling, high signal on T2 weighted images, Vacuum Discs and disc heights in determining the time frames of the etiology of the spinal disc pathology. Cleveland University, Kansas City, PACE Recognized by the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, Academy of Chiropractic, Post-Doctoral Division, Long Island, NY, 2019
Primary Spine 6, Creating Ethical Collaborative and Medical-Legal Relationships, Understanding the timely triage necessities based upon clinical and imaging outcomes and the documentation required for collaborative physicians to continue care. Ensuring that the documentation is complete, reflective of services rendered and clear for third party consideration in an admissible format to considered in a medical-legal environment. Cleveland University, Kansas City, PACE Recognized by the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, Academy of Chiropractic, Post-Doctoral Division, Long Island, NY, 2019
Primary Spine 6, Central Innervation of Spinal Biomecinacal Engineering, Understanding the lateral and ventral horn’s innovations of Pacinian Corpuscles, Ruffini Corpuscles, Golgi Organ Receptors, Nociceptors, Proprioreceptors and Mechancoreceptors and the pathways through the spinal thalamic tracts through the periaqueductal region, the Thalamus into the Occipital, pre-frontal, sensory and motor cortexes and the efferently back through the Thalamus to disparate regions in creating spinal homeostasis, Pacinian Corpuscles, Ruffini Corpuscles, Golgi Organ Receptors, Nociceptors, Proprioreceptors and Mechancoreceptors. Cleveland University, Kansas City, PACE Recognized by the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, Academy of Chiropractic, Post-Doctoral Division, Long Island, NY, 2019
Primary Spine 6, Identifying Spinal Pathology of MRI, Utilizing T1, T2, STIR and Gradient studies in determining myelomalacia, intra and extra-dural tumors and systemic disease patterns affecting the spinal cord. When to use contrast post-operatively in identifying discal structures vs. adhesions on postoperative advanced imaging. MRI Interpretation of herniated, circumferential bulges, focal bulges, protruded, extruded, comminuted, sequestered and fragmented discs. When to consider a neurosurgical consultation based upon the correlation of imaging and clinical findings. Cleveland University, Kansas City, PACE Recognized by the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, Academy of Chiropractic, Post-Doctoral Division, Long Island, NY, 2019
Computerized Mensuration of Spinal Biomechanical Pathology, Understanding the algorithmic interpretation of spinal biomechanical pathology in a 3-D model and creating treatment plans, impairment ratings and teaching models based upon the vertebral motor unit angles. Determining sagittal and axial alignments in creating a normative baseline for treatment goals and outcomes Cleveland University - Kansas City, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Long Island, NY, 2019
Neurosurgical-Chiropractic Collaboration on Spinal Pathology, Utilizing x-ray, MRI and other modalities of advanced imaging in conjunction with spinal biomechanical failure and clinical evaluation to collaboratively create treatment protocols for patients in both the operative and non-operative cases. Determining the boundaries of scope of care for both the chiropractor and neurosurgeon based upon a definitive diagnosis of the mechanical vs. an anatomical lesion. Cleveland University - Kansas City, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Long Island, NY, 2019
Documentation and Ethics in Medical-Legal Relationships, Creating ethical relationships based upon accurate documentation reflective of the casually related condition of the injured. Ensuring accepted credentials of the doctor based upon Voir Dire standards reflected in an admissible curriculum vitae. How to present demonstrative documentation in the courts reflective of the patient’s pathology Cleveland University - Kansas City, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Long Island, NY, 2019
Coding, Documentation and Compliant Coding, Ensuring the correct codes are utilized in an evaluation and management encounter. The correct elements are utilized to support the level of E&M coded along with a self-audit program to ensure ethical billing occurs. Guidelines for history of present illness, primary complaint, review of systems, family, social and past histories are discussed and how to document the same. Cleveland University - Kansas City, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Long Island, NY, 2019
Traumatic Brain Injury and Concussion Overview: , This section is an in-depth overview of traumatic brain injury in concussion. It discusses that all brain injuries are traumatic and dispels the myth of a “mild traumatic brain injury. Also, this covers triage protocols and the potential sequela of patients with traumatic brain injuries. Cleveland University, Kansas City, Academy of Chiropractic, Post-Doctoral Division, Long Island, NY, 2019
Head Trauma and Traumatic Brain Injury Part 1: , This section discusses gross traumatic brain injuries from trauma and significant bleeding with both epidural and subdural hematomas. There are numerous case studies reviewed inclusive of neurosurgical intervention and postsurgical outcomes. . Cleveland University, Kansas City, Academy of Chiropractic, Post-Doctoral Division, Long Island, NY, 2019
Head Trauma and Traumatic Brain Injury Part 2: , This section continues with multiple case studies of gross traumatic brain injuries from trauma requiring neurosurgical intervention and also discusses recovery sequela based upon the significance of brain trauma. This module also concludes with concussion protocols in traumatic brain injury short of demonstrable bleeding on advanced imaging. Cleveland University, Kansas City, Academy of Chiropractic, Post-Doctoral Division, Long Island, NY, 2019
Concussion And Electroencephalogram Testing: , This this section covers concussion etiology and cognitive sequela where gross bleeding has not been identified on advanced imaging. It discusses the significance of electroencephalogram testing in determining brain function and pathology (if present). This module also covers the understanding of waveforms in electroencephalogram testing in both normal and abnormal scenarios. Cleveland University, Kansas City, Academy of Chiropractic, Post-Doctoral Division, Long Island, NY, 2019
Concussion And Electroencephalogram Testing Pathological Results: , This module covers amplitude, conduction and conduction delays as sequela to traumatic brain injury to diagnose concussion and traumatic brain injury in the absence of gross bleeding and advanced imaging. This section covers electroencephalograms and event-related potentials which measures the brain response that is a direct result of specific sensory or motor events. It is a stereotype electrophysiological response to a stimulus and provides a noninvasive means of evaluating brain function. In this module multiple case studies are discussed with ensuing triage protocols pending the results. Cleveland University, Kansas City, Academy of Chiropractic, Post-Doctoral Division, Long Island, NY, 2019
Electrodiagnostics: Electromyogram/Nerve Conduction Velocity (EMG/NCV), Diagnosis & Interpretation: Anatomy and Physiology of Electrodiagnostics, An in-depth review of basic neuro-anatomy and physiology dermatomes and myotomes to both the upper and lower extremities and the neurophysiology of axons and dendrites along with the myelin and function of saltatory for conduction. The sodium and potassium pump’s function in action potentials. Cleveland University, Kansas City, Academy of Chiropractic, Post-Doctoral Division, Long Island, New York, 2019
Electrodiagnostics: Electromyogram/Nerve Conduction Velocity (EMG/NCV), Diagnosis & Interpretation: Nerve Conduction Velocity (NCV) Part 1:, Nerve conduction velocity testing, the equipment required and the specifics of motor and sensory testing. This section covers the motor and sensory NCV procedures and interpretation including latency, amplitude (CMAP) physiology and interpretation including the understanding of the various nuances of the wave forms. Cleveland University, Kansas City, Academy of Chiropractic, Post-Doctoral Division, Long Island, New York, 2019
Electrodiagnostics: Electromyogram/Nerve Conduction Velocity (EMG/NCV), Diagnosis & Interpretation: Nerve Conduction Velocity (NCV) Part 2: , Compound motor action potentials (CMAP) and sensory nerve action potentials (SNAP) testing and interpretation including the analysis and diagnosis of the wave forms. It also covers compressive neuropathies of the median, ulnar and posterior tibial nerves; known as carpal tunnel, cubital tunnel and tarsal tunnel syndromes. This section offers interpretation algorithms to help understand the neurodiagnostic conclusions. Cleveland University, Kansas City, Academy of Chiropractic, Post-Doctoral Division, Long Island, New York, 2019
Electrodiagnostics: Electromyogram/Nerve Conduction Velocity (EMG/NCV), Diagnosis & Interpretation: Needle Electromyogram (EMG) Studies: , The EMG process, inclusive of how the test is performed and the steps required in planning and electromyographic study. This covers the spontaneous activity of a motor unit action potential, positive sharp waves and fibrillations. The insertional activity (both normal and abnormal), recruitment activity in a broad polyphasic presentation and satellite potentials. This covers the diagnosing of patterns of motor unit abnormalities including neuropathic demyelinated neuropathies along with acute myopathic neuropathies. This section also covers the ruling out of false positive and false negative results. Cleveland University, Kansas City, Academy of Chiropractic, Post-Doctoral Division, Long Island, New York, 2019
Electrodiagnostics: Electromyogram/Nerve Conduction Velocity (EMG/NCV), Diagnosis & Interpretation: Overview of EMG and NCV Procedures, Results, Diagnoses and Documentation. , The clinical incorporation of electrodiagnostic studies as part of a care plan where neuropathology is suspected. It also covers how to use electrodiagnostics in a collaborative environment between the chiropractor as the primary spine care provider and the surgeon, when clinically indicated. This section covers sample cases and health conclude and accurate treatment plans based upon electro-neurodiagnostic findings when clinically indicated. Cleveland University, Kansas City, Academy of Chiropractic, Post-Doctoral Division, Long Island, New York, 2019
Clinical Grand Rounds – Facet Joint Thresholds and Alteration of Motion Segment Integrity , – discussion of the predominant mode of joint loading of the cervical facet joints during whiplash injury related to retraction tension on the facet joint capsule. Review of shear forces, translation of the inferior and superior facet joint as well as injury risk due to excessive stretching of spinal ligaments was presented. Overview and discussion of mechanical trauma to ligament tissue and subsequent microstructural damage not visibly detected was outlined. Threshold for microstructural changes during retraction, reduced ligament stiffness and unrecovered strain was discussed in detail. Individual response to facet joint capsule response supported in the medical literature was presented. National Spine Management Group, LLC, Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, State University of New York at Buffalo Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences , New York, New York, 2019
Orthopedic Testing: Principles, Clinical Application and Triage, Integration of orthopedic testing in the clinical setting to develop a differential diagnosis. Utilizing radiographic and advanced imaging inclusive of MRI and CAT scan findings to verify tissue pathology suspected by orthopedic testing conclusions and developing a treatment plan as sequelae. Texas Chiropractic College or PACE Recognized by The Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Buffalo, New York, 2018
Orthopedic Testing: Cervical Spine, Integration of cervical orthopedic testing in the clinical setting to develop a differential diagnosis. Utilizing radiographic and advanced imaging inclusive of MRI and CAT scan findings to verify tissue pathology suspected by orthopedic testing conclusions and developing a treatment plan as sequelae. Texas Chiropractic College, ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Buffalo, New York, 2018
Orthopedic Testing: Cervical Spine, Orthopedic Testing: Cervical Spine, Integration of cervical orthopedic testing in the clinical setting to develop a differential diagnosis. Utilizing radiographic and advanced imaging inclusive of MRI and CAT scan findings to verify tissue pathology suspected by orthopedic testing conclusions and developing a treatment plan as sequelae [Texas Chiropractic College or PACE Recognized by The Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards], ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post Doctoral Division, Academy of Chiropractic Post Doctoral Division, Buffalo, New York, 2018
Orthopedic Testing: Lumbar Spine, Integration of lumbar orthopedic testing in the clinical setting to develop a differential diagnosis. Utilizing radiographic and advanced imaging inclusive of MRI and CAT scan findings to verify tissue pathology suspected by orthopedic testing conclusions and developing a treatment plan as sequelae. Texas Chiropractic College, ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Buffalo, New York, 2018
Orthopedic Testing: Clinical Grand Rounds, how to integrate orthopedic testing in the clinical setting utilizing both simple and complex patient scenarios. It includes potential stroke, or vertebrobasilar insufficient patients and understanding the nuances in a clinical evaluation with orthopedic testing as a critical part of the evaluation and screening process. How to integrate orthopedic testing in the clinical setting utilizing both simple and complex patient scenarios. It includes potential stroke, or vertebrobasilar insufficient patients and understanding the nuances in a clinical evaluation with orthopedic testing as a critical part of the evaluation and screening process. Texas Chiropractic College, ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division,, Buffalo, New York, 2018
Stroke Anatomy and Physiology: Brain Vascular Anatomy, The anatomy and physiology of the brain and how blood perfusion effects brain function. A detailed analysis of the blood supply to the brain and the physiology of ischemia. . Texas Chiropractic College, ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Buffalo, NY, 2018
Stroke Anatomy and Physiology: Stroke Types and Blood Flow, Various types of stroke identifying ischemia, hypoperfusion, infarct and penumbra zones and emboli. Cardiac etiologies and clinical features as precursor to stroke with associated paradoxical emboli and thrombotic etiologies. Historical and co-morbidities that have etiology instroke inclusive of diabetes, coagulopathy, acquired and hereditary deficiencies. Texas Chiropractic College, ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division , Buffalo, NY, 2018
Stroke Principles of Treatment an Overview for the Primary Care Provider, Stroke type and treatments performed by vascular specialists. The goals of treatment with the physiology of the infarct and penumbra zones and the role of immediate triage in the primary care setting. Detailing the complications of stroke and future care in the chiropractic, primary care or manual medicine clinical setting. Texas Chiropractic College, ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division , Buffalo, NY, 2018
Primary Spine Care 2: Spinal Trauma Pathology, Morphology of healthy and traumatized connective tissue and the permanency implication of adhesions, spinal disc morphology in the healthy and pathological patient as sequella to trauma in relationship to bulges, herniations, protrusions, extrusions and sequestrations. Aberrant spinal biomechanics and negative sequella to trauma Texas Chiropractic College, Academy of Chiropractic, Setauket, New York, 2017
MRI Interpretation of Degenerative Spine and Disc Disease with Overlapping Traumatic Insult to Both Spine and Disc, MRI slices, views, T1, T2, STIR Axial, FFE, FSE and sagittal images in the interpretation of degenerative spondylolesthesis, spinal canal stenosis, Modic type 3 changes, central herniations, extrusions, compressions, nerve root compressions, advanced spurring and thecal sac involvement from an orthopedic, emergency room, chiropractic, neurological, neurosurgical, physical medicine perspective [Texas Chiropractic College or PACE Reconized by The Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards], ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Buffalo, New York, 2017
MRI Interpretation of Cervical Herniations, MRI slices, views, T1, T2, STIR Axial, FFE, FSE and sagittal images in the interpretation of lumbar herniations. With the co-morbidities and complications of stenosis, pseudo-protrusions, cantilevered vertebrate, Schmorl's nodes and herniations. morphology of lumbar disc pathologies of central and lateral herniations, protrusions, extrusions, sequestration, focal and broad based herniations are defined and illustrated. Spinal cord and canal compromise interpretation with management. [Texas Chiropractic College or PACE Reconized by The Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards], ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Buffalo, New York, 2017
MRI Interpretation of Cervical Degenerative/Bulges, MRI slices, views, T1, T2, STIR axial, stacking, FFE, FSE and sagittal images in the interpretation of cervical degeneration. With the co-morbidities and complications of stenosis, pseudo-protrusions, cantilevered vertebrate, Schmorl's nodes and herniations. Spinal cord and canal compromise interpretation with management. [Texas Chiropractic College or PACE Reconized by The Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards], ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Buffalo, New York, 2017
MRI Interpretation of Lumbar Herniations, MRI slices, views, T1, T2, STIR axial, stacking, FFE, FSE and sagittal images in the interpretation of lumbar herniations. With the co-morbities and complications of stenosis, pseudo-protrusions, cantilevered vertebrate, Schmorl's nodes and herniations. Morphology of lumbar disc pathologies of central and lateral herniations, protrusions, extrusions, sequestration, focal and broad based herniations are defined and illustrated. Central canal and cauda equina compromise interpretation with management. [Texas Chiropractic College or PACE Reconized by The Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards], ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Buffalo, New York, 2017
MRI Interpretation of Lumbar Degeneration/Bulges, MRI slices, views, T1, T2, STIR axial, stacking, FFE, FSE and sagittal images in the interpretation of lumbar degeneration. With the co-morbidities and complications of stenosis, pseudo-protrusions, cantilevered vertebrate, Schmorl's nodes and herniations. Central canal and cauda equina compromise interpretation with management. [Texas Chiropractic College or PACE Reconized by The Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards], ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division,, Buffalo, New York, 2017
MRI Protocols Clinical Necessity, MRI slices, views, T1, T2, STIR axial, stacking, FFE, FSE and sagittal images. Clinical indication for the utilization of MRI and pathologies of disc in both trauma and non-trauma sequellae, including bulge, herniation, protrusion, extrusion and sequestration. [Texas Chiropractic College or PACE Reconized by The Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards], ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Buffalo, New York, 2017
Primary Spine Care 2: Utilizing Research in Trauma, The ability of your electronic health records to convey tissue pathology while documenting case studies, field experiments, randomized trials and systematic literature reviews, Introducing evidence based macros in documentation to support the literature and necessity of care. Texas Chiropractic College, Academy of Chiropractic, Setauket, New York, 2017
Primary Spine Care 2: Chiropracitc Evidence, Analyzing segmental pathology, adjusting vs. mobilization with cervicogenic headaches, Opioid alternatives and case management of mechanical spine pain based upon outcome studies. Texas Chiropractic College, Academy of Chiropractic, Setauket, New York, 2017
Primary Spine Care 2: Chiropractic Spinal Adjustment Central Nervous System Processing, Literature reviews of mechanoreceptor, proprioceptor and nociceptor simulation of lateral horn gray matter with periaquaductal stimulation affecting the thalmus and cortical regions with efferent distribution in disparate regions of the body in both pain and systemic stipulation. Texas Chiropractic College, Academy of Chiropractic, Setauket, NY, 2017
MRI History and Physics, Magnetic fields, T1 and T2 relaxations, nuclear spins, phase encoding, spin echo, T1 and T2 contrast, magnetic properties of metals and the historical perspective of the creation of NMR and MRI. [Texas Chiropractic College or PACE Recognized by The Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards], ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division,, Buffalo, New York, 2017
MRI Spinal Anatomy and Protocols, Normal anatomy of axial and sagittal views utilizing T1, T2, 3D gradient and STIR sequences of imaging. Standardized and desired protocols in views and sequencing of MRI examination to create an accurate diagnosis in MRI. [Texas Chiropractic College or PACE Recognized by The Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards], ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Buffalo, New York, 2017
MRI Disc Pathology and Spinal Stenosis, MRI interpretation of bulged, herniated, protruded, extruded, sequestered and fragmented disc pathologies in etiology and neurological sequelae in relationship to the spinal cord and spinal nerve roots. [Texas Chiropractic College or PACE Recognized by The Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards], ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Buffalo, New York, 2017
MRI Spinal Pathology, MRI interpretation of bone, intradural, extradural, cord and neural sleeve lesions. Tuberculosis, drop lesions, metastasis, ependymoma, schwanoma and numerous other spinal related tumors and lesions. [Texas Chiropractic College or PACE Recognized by The Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards]], ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Buffalo, New York, 2017
MRI Methodology of Analysis, MRI interpretation sequencing of the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine inclusive of T1, T2, STIR and 3D gradient studies to ensure the accurate diagnosis of the region visualized. [Texas Chiropractic College or PACE Recognized by The Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards]], ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Buffalo, New York, 2017
MRI Clinical Application, The clinical application of the results of space occupying lesions. Disc and tumor pathologies and the clinical indications of manual and adjustive therapies in the patient with spinal nerve root and spinal cord insult as sequelae. [Texas Chiropractic College or PACE Recognized by The Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Board], ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Buffalo, New York, 2017
Spinal Trauma Pathology: Research Perspectives, The review of current literature standards in spinal trauma pathology and documentation review of biomechanical failure, ligamentous failure and age-dating disc pathology Texas Chiropractic College, PACE Recognized by The Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Buffalo, New York, 2017
Mild Traumatic Brain Injury/Traumatic Brain Injury/Concussion, Deferentially diagnosing mild traumatic brain injury vs. traumatic brain injury and the clinical and imaging protocols required to conclude an accurate diagnosis for head trauma Texas Chiropractic College or PACE Recognized by The Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Long Island, New York, 2017
Spinal Biomechanical Engineering, Discuss the science of biomechanics, pathobiomechanics and bio-neuro-biomechanics of the spine and how the spine normally adapts to aberrant forces. Certification in Spinal Biomechanical Engineering, Texas Chiropractic College, ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Acceditation Council for Continuing Medical Education in joint sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Medicine, New York, New York, 2016
Primary Spine Care - Credentials and Knowledge Base, The credentials and knowledge based from an academia perspective when cooperatively treating in a collaborative environment inclusive of understanding pathology and mechanical spine issues Certification in Primary Spine Care, Texas Chiroprctic College Graduate Doctoral Program, PACE Recognized by The Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Melville, New York, 2016
Fascial Manipulation Level 2, Learn anatomy and physiology of the fascial system. Learn how to evaluate myofascial planes: upper and lower extremities, spine. Determine functional testing of areas of complaint. Develop skill and understanding to assess and manage abnormal functional findings with fascial pointst to restore normal biomechancal function. Certification in Fascial Manipulation Level 2, New York Chiropractic College, New York Chiropractic College, Stamford, CT, 2016
Fascial Manipulation Level 1, Learn anatomy and physiology of the fascial system. Learn how to evaluate myofascial planes: upper and lower extremities, spine. Determine functional testing of areas of complaint. Develop skill and understanding to assess abnormal functional findings with fascial points of involvement to restore normal function. Certification in Fascial Manipulation Level 1, New York Chiropractic College, New York Chiropractic College, Boston, MA, 2015
Graston Technique M2 Advanced Training, This course will emphasize a Graston Technique examination and treatment approach for musculoskeletal dysfunction and mechanical pain. Certification in Graston Technique M2, Graston Technique, National University of Health Sciences, Boston, Massachusettes, 2011
Graston Technique M1 Basic Training, Develop an understanding of Graston Technique and how to apply it into the full spectrum of musculoskeletal treatment and approaches. Certification in Graston Technique M1, Graston Technique, National University of Health Sciences, Boston, Massachusettes, 2007
The Scoliosis Treatment Recovery Systems, Discuss the treatment and management of progressive idiopathic scoliosis using the Copes Scoliosis brace and the STRS program Certification in Scoliosis Treatment Recovery Systems, New York Chiropractic College, New York Chiropractic College, Astoria, New York, 2000
Fitness, Strength and Perfromance, Discuss the incorporation of fitness and performance metrics and guidelines into a chiropractic practice Certification in Fitness, Strength and Performance, New York Chiropractic College, New York Chiropractic College, New York, NY, 2000
Impairment Rating, Calculate the impairment rating according to the guidelines set forth in the AMA Guides to the Evaluation of Permanent Impairment, Fourth Edition Parker College of Chiropractic, Parker College of Chiropractic, Richmond, Virginia, 1999
Copes Scoliosis Seminar, Discuss the evaluation, treatment, and management of progressive idiopathic scoliosis using the Copes Scoliosis brace New York Chiropractic College, New York Chiropractic College, Astoria, New York, 1999

SELECTED MEMBERSHIPS

Academy of Chiropractic, Trauma Team Member, 2021 - Present

SELECTED HONORS AND AWARDS

Valedictorian of Class of 1996, Life College of Chiropractic, 1996